February 01, 1960
April 17, 1960
November 18, 1960
November 18, 1960
January 04, 1961
January 06, 1961
January 13, 1961
January 13, 1961
January 31, 1961
February 10, 1961
May 04, 1961
March 08, 1962
April 18, 1962
June 02, 1962
September 01, 1962
September 30, 1962
July 11, 1963
September 15, 1963
July 02, 1964
March 26, 1965
December 10, 1965
February 28, 1966
April 04, 1968
April 09, 1968
April 09, 1968
April 09, 1968
May 07, 1968
May 14, 1968
May 17, 1968
May 17, 1968
May 17, 1968
May 17, 1968
May 21, 1968
May 21, 1968
July 31, 1968
August 16, 1968
September 27, 1968
October 29, 1968
November 05, 1968
May 04, 1969
November 19, 1969
December 16, 1969
December 19, 1969
Black College Students in Greensboro, North Carolina Stage Sit-in at a Segregated Lunch Counter
Four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College began a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Although they were refused service, they were allowed to stay at the counter. The event triggered many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South. Six months later the original four protesters were served lunch at the same Woolworth's counter. Student sit-ins became an effective strategy throughout the Deep South in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries, and other public facilities.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is Founded at Shaw University
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded at Shaw University, Raleigh, North Carolina. SNCC provided young blacks a place in the civil rights movement. As it matured the group became a more radical organization, especially under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael (1966–1967).
"UM to Host Mixed Student Confab"
University of Miami undergraduate students initiated the “newly-formed Florida Inter-Institutional Student Government Association” which included “negro and white Florida college students” to discuss common student government problems and promote better relations among the colleges.
"Swastika-Decked Jeep" in UM Homecoming Parade
A fraternity chose a Nazi theme for their Homecoming parade entry. The Jeep featured a swastika on the door along with a sign that read "Chapter Officers". The chapter officers in the jeep were dressed in Nazi uniforms and clutching fake machine-guns. Bob Wortman, the Homecoming Parade Chairman, said that the fraternity was entered in the parade but their theme has not been approved. The fraternity arrived late, thus allowing their theme to slip through unapproved. The Nazi theme raised regrets and comments of "poor taste" from UM students, faculty and administration. The fraternity was quoted as saying that the theme was intended to be "humorous".
Black Undergraduate Students Register at the University of Tennessee Without Incident
Three black undergraduates were registered at UT—eighteen-year-old Theotis Robinson, Jr. and Charles Edgar Blair; and a forty-one-year-old housewife, Mrs. Willie Mae Gillespie. The registration went smoothly and without incident.
Federal Judge Orders Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes Admitted to the University of Georgia
In the summer of 1959, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes were denied admission to the Athens campus of the University of Georgia (UGA). They took their case to the courts, and on January 6, 1961, a Federal judge ordered them admitted. Georgia's appeal to the Supreme Court was quickly denied several days later. On-campus harassment by white students ensued. After a sports event Hunter’s dormitory was mobbed and police had to use tear gas to disperse rioters. UGA suspends Holmes and Hunter "for their own safety and the safety of other students." More than 400 UGA faculty (a majority) signed a resolution condemning the violence and the suspension, and called for the return of the two Black students. Within days a new court order was handed down and they were able to return to class. Hunter and Holmes are joined by black graduate student Mary Frances Early, who had transfered from the University of Michigan. In 1962 Early becomes the first black to receive a degree from UGA. Hamilton Holmes became the first black admitted to Emory University School of Medicine and he ends his career as medical director of Atlanta's Grady Memorial Hospital and associate dean at Emory. Charlayne Hunter graduated from UGA in 1963 and later becomes prominent journalist, working for PBS, NPR and the Cable News Network (CNN) Johannesburg bureau chief.
UM Student Government Organization "Calls for Racial Policy"
The Undergraduate Student Government would organize a campus wide referendum on the University’s admission restrictions. The results of this vote would help to inform the Board of Trustees about the student body’s opinion regarding desegregation.
UM Wesley Foundation "Hits Racial Bars"
The UM Wesley Foundation releases statement on racial discrimination: “Our church has taught, and we believe, that in Jesus Christ all men are brothers. The Church, as the body of Christ, knows no racial, economic, or social discriminations, for all are one in him. We support fully the statement by the Methodist Council of Bishops which declared in 1952 and in 1956, and now has re-affirmed: “To discriminate against a person solely on the basis of his race is both unfair and un-christian…”
Black Students Admitted to the University of Miami
The University of Miami Board of Trustees voted to admit students regardless of race or color beginning in the summer of 1961.
"19 Negros to Apply for UM Admission"
The Miami Hurricane reported that 19 Negros filled out applications for UM summer and fall sessions on February 09, 1961.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and SNCC Sponsor Freedom Rides across the South
Over the spring and summer, student volunteers begin taking bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibited segregation in interstate travel facilities, which included bus and railway stations. Several groups of "freedom riders," as they were called, were attacked by angry mobs along the way. The program, sponsored by The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), involved more than 1,000 black and white volunteers.
Black Applicants will be Admitted to the Graduate and Professional Schools at Duke University
"The Duke Board of Trustees resolve that qualified applicants may be admitted to degree programs in the Graduate and Professional Schools in Duke University, effective September 1, 1961, without regard to race, creed or national origin." --from the Minutes of the Board of Trustees, March 8, 1962
In September 1961, six African American students were registered. Three later withdrew. Of the students that stayed, two were enrolled in the Law School, and one in the Divinity School. The Law School students received their degrees in June, 1964, and the Divinity school student in 1965.
Henry King Stanford becomes the University of Miami's third president
The Board of Trustees elect Henry Kind Stanford as UM's third president.
Black Applicants will be Admitted to the Undergraduate Colleges of Duke University
"The Duke Board of Trustees resolved that qualified applicants may be admitted to degree programs in the undergraduate colleges of Duke University without regard to race, creed or national origin" --from the Minutes of the Board of Trustees, June 2, 1962
In September, 1963, five African American undergraduates enrolled. One left to enter military service, and another left to take a job. The remaining three students received their degrees in 1967.
Emory University Officially Desegregated September 1, 1962
The first black undergraduates students entered Emory University in the fall of 1963. The movement towards integration was initiated by faculty who issued a statement in 1958 opposing the closing of public schools to protest desegregation. In a 1960 resolution Arts and Sciences faculty advocated a meeting of church related and private colleges in the Atlanta area to “explore the directions of development that are seen to be desirable by both white and Negro education institutions ...” Following this the Emory Board of Trustees made policy changes to allow the admission of students of all races. State laws were in place that denied tax-exemption privileges to schools that became racially integrated. Emory’s petitions to Dekalb County and the Georgia State Supreme Court challenging these laws finally ended in the Supreme Court which ruled in favor of the university in September 1962.
Black Student Enrolls at the University of Mississippi
James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Riots ensue.
Governor George Wallace Blocks the Door of Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama to Prevent Two Black Students from Enrolling at the School
As Wallace took his position at the door, state troopers surrounded the building. Then, flanked by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to abide by the federal court order. Wallace refused, citing the constitutional right of states to operate public schools, colleges and universities. President Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard to help with the crisis, and, ultimately, Wallace stepped aside. Vivian Malone and James Hood were allowed to register for classes.
Bomb Kills Young Black Girls Attending Sunday School in Birmingham, Alabama
Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school were killed when a bomb exploded at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupted in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths. The explosion at the church marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s civil rights movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
President Johnson Signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin, and also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation.
"Integrationist Speaks" at UM
Harry G. Boyte, special assistant to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., speaks to UM students in social sciences and human relations.
UM "Students Rally to Back U.S."
A rally demonstrating the UM student body's acceptance and approval of American policy in Vietnam. The rally was sponsored by the Young Republicans and Young Democrats. The Honorable Dante Fascell (U.S. Congressman from Dade County), Dr. Ivan Hoy (Chairman of the Department of Religion and Army Chaplin), and Major Fred St. Clair (a Vietnam vet) were in attendance.
President Stanford Affirms UM's Non-Discrimination Policy
On February 28, 1966 UM President, Henry King Stanford issued a memo to all faculty, administrators and staff stating the institution’s policy regarding discrimination:
"RESOLVED, that it is the policy of the University of Miami that no citizen of the United States or any other person within the jurisdiction thereof shall, on the ground of race, creed, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity of the University."
Martin Luther King is Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee
Martin Luther King, age 39, is shot on the balcony outside his Memphis hotel room. James Earl Ray, an escaped convict and George Wallace supporter, is convicted of the crime. Ray was sentenced to 99 years in prison.
UM Martin Luther King Memorial Service
University of Miami students attend a memorial service in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968), a clergyman and leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. As of 1964, he was the youngest recepient of the Nobel Peace Price for his non-violent activism toward desegregation.
UM Martin Luther King Memorial Service
UM Classes Cancelled for Martin Luther King Memorial
The United Black Students (UBS) organized and planned the program for the Martin Luther King Memorial Service held at the University. President Stanford announced that classes were suspended after 11 a.m.
United Black Students (UBS) "Hits UM With Requests"
UBS presented President Henry King Stanford a document listing 10 requests of the University administration. The document, Program Objectives of Priority to be Submitted and Acted Upon by the University of Miami Administration, contained provisions for recruitment of black students, 200 scholarships for black applicants, courses in Afro-American culture and more black faculty members.
United Black Students (UBS) Holds Rally in "Freedom Corner"
The Student Union lower lounge's southwest corner (later dubbed "Freedom Corner") was the location for a UBS rally.
"14 [UM] Black Students Stage Sit-In Demonstration as Police Invade"
At 8:47 am, fourteen members of UBS marched into the Ashe building and into President Henry King Stanford's office for a sit-in demonstration. The Miami Hurricane reported on Friday, May 17, 1968. The sit-in was led by University of Miami's student organization United Black Students (UBS) president, Harold Long.
UM "Whites Support UBS Demands"
The Miami Hurricane reported that there was an 8:30 pm forum held at the International Lounge to review the actions taken by the United Black Students (UBS) in the UM's President office on that day. Jim Gahagan led the forum which consisted of white students: “We are here to gather support from the white students who felt that what UBS did was right, and who are willing to support any further actions by UBS.” Eventually Undergraduate Student Government (USG) President, Mike Abrams, persuaded the students to adjourn to the “Rock” where spontaneous rallies could take place. Adams then notified Dr. William Butler, Vice-President for Student Affairs that the USG would stay to moderate the forum.
"UM President Stanford Clarifies Stand On UBS Sit-In Move"
President Henry King Stanford calls a press conference for 2:45 pm. The conference was to address the UBS sit-in demonstration that occurred in his office at 9:15 am that same day. The conference was held in the Ashe building with members of the press, ten Miami Hurricane staff members, UBS President, Harold Long, and UBS vice-president, Harold Field.
UM Student "Pickets Hit Library Hall"
A group of mostly white students carring picket signs reading, "Cool Fall - Cool Summer, It's Now, UM Has a Racist System and The Zoo Supports UBS", began their demonstration in front of the Administration building and made their way to the Library breezeway. It was here that a meeting between President Stanford, Dr. Butler, Harold Long and other members of UBS, Department heads and Mike Abrams (USG president) was in progress.
UM "Board Surprises Long with 25 scholarships"
The Board of Trustees' Executive Committee approves the creation of the John F. Kennedy - Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Scholarships. These scholarships are made available to disadvantaged black students.
"Senator McCarthy speaks to UM students"
Nearly 5,000 people attend Senator Eugene McCarthy's talk at the Student Union.
UM School Desegregation Center serves as a consultant for South Florida School Districts
The School Desegregation Consulting Center at the University of Miami, under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, served as consultants for school districts, such as Duval County, which were not yet in full compliance with the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education.
In the case of Duval County Board of Public Instruction, Circuit Court Judge Bryan Simpson, stated in an amended order: “Defendants shall, without delay, request the assistance of the expert consultation of school administrators of the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, located at the University of Miami, under the South Florida Desegregation Center, for review of the system of assignment for the school year 1967-68 and subsequent years...with a view to complete elimination of segregated schools and racially discriminatory practices in the operation of the Duval County School System.”
"UBS Militant Jailed After Riot"
As the rioting in Liberty City began to subside, Wayne Thompson, a UM student was arrested by Metro policemen. He was charged with assult and battery on a policeman. Thompson was in the area as a part of a federally funded UM study for the Department of Housing & Urban Development.
UM President's Letter: "Confederate Flag, Dixie Are Banned"
President Henry King Stanford publishes a letter to the student body in the Miami Hurricane. This letter outlines his reasons for issuing the ban on both the Confederate Flag and the Dixie song.
"UBS Burns Bulletins in Protest"
UBS burned UM 1969-1970 Course Bulletins in anger over the black oriented courses being left out. More than 100 students (UBS members and white sympathizers) tore pages from the bulletin and burned them in a trash receptacle.
UBS President Harold "Long Resigns"
Harold Long resigns his position as UBS President.
University of Miami Black Culture Week and Curricula
In the Spring of 1969, not only did the United Black Students organize "Black Culture Week" but the University also offered a selection of newly established courses on African Economics Development, Problems in Sub-Saharan Africa, Blacks in American Politics and the History of Blacks in the United States.
The courses were open to all University students and included black guest lecturers.
"UM Involved in the Desegregation of Miami Dade Public Schools"
The desegration of the University of Miami occured within the context of desegragation of Florida elementary and high schools. Like many Southern States, the process moved at a very slow pace in spite of the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 ruling (Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka) establishing school segregaton as unconstitutional.
University of Miami President, Henry King Standford was actively involved in the larger discussions surrounding the issue, especially while serving as Chairman of the Community Relations Board of Miami Dade County.
UBS "Rally Held" Protesting Panther Killings
United Black Students (UBS) and Black Sisters for Progress (BSP) rally to protest “a nationwide pattern of police action against the Panthers.”
"UBS Trial Postponed"
Ten members of UM’s United Black Students (UBS) and three Palmetto High School students were formally charged with “disrupting school functions and unlawful assembly” by the city of Miami.
Desegregation in the 1960s
In 1961, the University Of Miami Board Of Trustees voted to "admit qualified students without regard to race or color beginning in the summer of that year." This official integration of the "negro" students on the Coral Gables campus brought no strife. The student newspaper, the Hurricane, reported that black students primarily experienced indifference and stares from their white counterparts. The new "colored" students nevertheless felt the burden of being pioneers of desegregation. In the 1964 issue of the student publication, "Tempo", Bill Genrette wrote about the "Sun-tanned Negro":
Sympathetic whites and concerned Negroes expect a Negro student at newly desegregated school to maintain the 'good Negro image'. In spite of adversity or personal disposition, he is expected to be a living rebuttal to those bigoted and unenlighted folk who yet subscribe to the tired old view that Negroes are not quite as human as white people are.
This initial isolation within the campus and surrounding community - which still resisted national efforts toward desegregation -shifted dramatically in the late 60s. Under the Presidency of Henry King Stanford, the United Black Students (UBS), which had gained formal recognition in 1967, formulated demands and met with university administration to push for higher enrollments in the number of black students, scholarships, integrated staff and faculty as well as the expansion of the curriculum to include the intellectual contributions of Africa and its diaspora. These efforts reflected a desire to reformulate the context in which integrated education was to take place.
President Stanford was sympathetic to the students' agenda and met repeatedly with UBS leaders. He had to mitigate their fervor with the slow pace of university administration as well as the criticism of an off-campus community weary of the advocacy of the civil rights movement.