The Alvan Stewart Papers

May 16 - June 10, 1831

Across the Atlantic,
New York to Liverpool

June 11 - June 18, 1831

Landing in Liverpool;
Travel to London

June 19 - June 26, 1831


June 27 - June 30, 1831

From London to Paris

July 1 - July 8, 1831


July 9 - July 14, 1831


July 15 - July 21, 1831

From Paris to Havre

July 22 - September 1, 1831

Return across the Atlantic,
Havre to New York

Return across the Atlantic, Havre to New York, July 22 - September 1, 1831

Friday 22nd of July. Breakfast at the Holland; dined out and to my great joy after lingering out another miserable day in Havre at 7 P.M. in a rainy, windy night to my joy, I pulled out of the harbor to sea. Wind adverse, but I had a thousand times rather be in a ship at sea, than lying in a harbor in suspense.

Saturday morning July 23rd. Yet in sight of Havre de Grace, its chalk hills and two light houses, wind adverse. But I am content because I am going towards America if it is but five miles a day. We have a fine captain; fine ship. The Havre is a vessel of 500 tons, highly finished. Capt. De Peyster an experienced navigator. The cabin has it share of intelligence; many gentlemen who have spent years abroad in cultivating their minds and manners. The steerage is also filled with passengers of an humbler cast.

Sunday morning July 24th. This morning the wind was fair from the Northeast and blew almost a gale. In that gale while no coast could be seen, no noise heard but the threatening surges and winds roaring among the cracking cordage, no voice could compete with the hollow murmurs of the blast, except the hoarse voice of the captain speaking out his commands through the brazen trumpet, while it was yet dark, a new little passenger took up its residence in the steerage. Its mother is a Swiss passenger from one of the cantons near the cloud capped Alps. I was struck with the coincidence between this birth and that of King Pericle's daughter in a sea storm, as given by Shakespeare,

"Now, mild may be thy life!
"For a more blustious birth had never babe:
"Quiet and gentle they conditions!
"For thou'rt the rudiliest welcomed to this world,
"That e'er was Prince's child, Happy what follows!
"Thou had'st as chiding a nativity
"As fire, air, water, earth and heaven can make,
"To herald thee from the womb;"

This morning in the distant horizon of the North, we saw old England's chalky cliffs just in the horizon's edge. If is probably near the Land's End in Cornwall. We are now at 1 P.M. cruising leisurely down the channel towards the chops, much afflicted to get rid of our French, Havre Pilot, who is yet on board.

At about 7 P.M. we saw the English fleet commanded by Admiral Codrington, the Hero of Navaims. There were eight 74 gun and five frigates or sloops of war making thirteen in the whole, it was beautiful sight, they have lately been at Lisbon to chastise Don Miguel for some insult to England. The Don gave England satisfaction and no blood was shed. This fleet come home, and about ten days ago received orders to cruise off the chops of the French and English near the Lizard for further orders, where we fell in with her. We showed our striped bunting and they returned the compliment by hoisting their colors. They were sailing under reefed topsails, to the northward. The fleet were in the shape of the letter A, with the cross.

Monday July 25th. At sea, off south of the Irish Channel, 3 P.M. a beautiful day, now fairly at sea, though I suppose we could yet find sounding. The wind has been very light to-day. This morning two French crows alighted on our ship much fatigued by flying, and tame as cats, who have taken passage for New York without paying a sou. It requires more patience to wear away day after day, on my return passage than it did coming out. It is very irksome.

July 26th. Fairly at sea, where the ocean assumes that dark color denoting that soundings are gone. I am bidding adieu to the Old World, the Volume which I had just opened to look into the ages and centuries which have grown white beneath the frosts of time, I have now closed that volume forever, and leave Europe with her riches, pomp, tyranny, rotten governments, starving, supperless millions, groaning beneath a weight under which they cannot stand up, debased by venality, and wined, and made miserable by the extravagance and folly of those governments, which are fastened upon its illfated inhabitants who have not the energy, intelligence and morality, requisite for their emancipation. When I see the laboring millions of France and England being eighty out of one hundred of their subjects, striving with all their might sixteen hours out of twenty four, barely for subsistence, barely preserve connection between their souls and bodies, no energy directed to any other purpose than simply of preserving life from day to day, as the all absorbing operation of the mine morning, noon and night, how shall my body, my wife's, my children be preserved from freezing and starving? I confess my mind grows sick at the hideous and soul-rending picture.

July 27th. At sea. Fair sailing at seven knots an hour, which give me pleasure to leave the Old World and hasten towards the setting sun in the New. My wife and children form the all engrossing subject of my thoughts, and I think it would have been impossible for me to have spent a year from home; I had no idea how much I loved them, and how much my existence was bound up in their's. Not having heard from them so long, fearing some ill may have overtaken them, creates a most distressing anxiety.

Among the other curious things on board our ship, are two Roman Catholic Missionaries, bound to Cincinnatti in Ohio, to Bishop Fenwick, a Roman Catholic priest I really think they had letter staid at home, than to go to America to make proselytes, who will be ten times more the disciples of perdition after they are made then they were before. The Roman Catholic Religion has turned Roman Catholic Europe into Catholic deists, Catholic atheists, and pure-Catholic infidels. And yet the Pope has been flattered with the belief that the great Valley of the Mississippi is the place to unfurl the colors, and raise the standard of the great purple whore of Babylon. But our country is free for all sects, therefore the emmissaries of Satan have the liberty of coming, however unwelcome to the truly pious public.

Thursday July 28th, at sea. We had another easy and pleasant night. This morning at 9 A.M. just as we were sitting down to breakfast, a shoal of porpoises crossed the head of our ship, when being prepared with a harpoon, a sailor drove it into the back of a porpoise just behind his neck, when the monster weighing about 300 weight was by the means of ropes drawn up on deck, he bled very profusely, I should think three or four gallons. His meat is represented as tasting like pork. His flesh is not white like a fish, but is as red as beef. Today it appears by observation taken that we are in North Latitude 50 degrees and 30 minutes, and fifteen degrees and one half of West Longitude. So that since last Saturday morning to this being five days, we have sailed about 600 miles from Havre, which lies in 49 degrees and 28 minutes South and 7 miles of East Longitude. While at Rouen, Havre and Paris, I found that a vast many people could get no employment at all. I saw stone cutters at Havre working for fifty sous or cents a day, and finding themselves, laborers in the brick yards working for ten sous per day, and finding themselves; women shovelling manure, and mud, and wheeling it on to fields for eight sous, finding themselves; laborers in hay and wheat fields working for twelve, ten, eight and six sous a day. In England the wages of men are a trifle better and provisions a trifle dearer, so that the operative cannot really get more in one country than in the other. The man of America can get five times as much and provisions 300 percent less, than here, so that the laborer in America considering the means of subsistence being so much cheaper in the United States, than in England or France, gets from eight to twelve times as much for this labor as the laboring man of England and France.

Hail happy America with her happy well fed, well clothed, well instructed millions marching to the goal of National glory, not borne down by an aristocracy, kings, placemen pensions, corrupt courts, standing armies or national debts. I sincerely believe that there is as much means of subsistence consumed, wasted and enjoyed as goes to the maintaining the 33 millions of France in her wretched starving saving way.

July 29th 1831 at sea. We are sailing up into the northwest at the rate of six miles an hour. Our course is not very good, as we go rather too far towards the North Pole. I have taken this day a most solemn resolution upon me, which is, after chewing tobacco from 1816 till now without intermission, it totally to abandon a practice, which if persisted in I believe would prematurely send me to the grave.

It is 4 P.M. and with much longing and sighing I have withstood all the desire by which I have been goaded on for the day - and utterly rejected the least morsel. If I can only be rid of this most pernicious health-undermining practice of tobacco-chewing I should be happy indeed.

Saturday July 30th, 3 P.M. at sea. I have yet maintained my noble resolution of not using tobacco. Last night I slept, but past of the time near morning. My desire kept me awake. But if I can surmount this appetite for tobacco, I shall consider it a most important conquest and a great deliverance from jaws of passion.

This day we are perfectly becalmed about 250 or 300 west of the middle of Ireland. Ever since we left Havre, we have been sailing, north of west which has brought us into this situation, we are in hopes, that this calm will end in a wind more favorable than the one we have had. It seems as if I could never be reconciled to forty days confinement in this ship. I have spent one fifty of Forty days that is eight days. Alas! alas! discontented man; when will he obey the dictates of moral reason, and the voice of Christianity, which commands him to be content with every condition in which he is placed.

July 31st at sea. Sabbath day laying becalmed near the same place where we last three days coming out about 300 miles west of Ireland in latitude 52. This sabbath day has not been kept as it ought. Oh what a dreadful place a ship is at sea to hear the name of God profaned by passengers, though I with great pleasure confess I have not heard a profane word from the captain, his officers, or one of the sailors.

Monday, August 1st at sea with very little wind, thought since noon of this day I believe the charm has broken and the wind is somewhat more favorable. Now if I can live to see the 1st day of September is will be forty days and I shall be 41 years old and I hope by that day, I may set my foot on the terra firma of New York. No more to go to sea and bear its killing calms and dreadful monotonies. We have the following persons in our ship;

Captain De Peyster; 1st Mate, Mr. Dogett; 2nd Mate, Mr. Walton.

In the cabin we have myself; Mr. Codman of Boston, a gentleman of 46 years of age, a polished man and possessed of fortune, who married a fine lady about six years ago, had two daughters by her in Boston, one two years old, the other six months, who both died suddenly and left their father and mother in despair. Mr. Codman and lady thought travelling would remove their melancholly, and three years since they went to Paris, both understanding French, where they had a little boy twenty months old, and another three and a half months old, three days after whose birth Mrs. Codman appeared perfectly comfortable, and in one day after she was in eternity, and left her poor distressed husband to return home with his two motherless sons, for whom she expressed great concern in her dying moments by inquiring what will become of my poor little boys? Mr. Codman has two nurses, an English woman who takes care of the eldest, and a French woman, who got another woman to nurse her child, while she crosses the ocean with Mr. Codman's most interesting, beautiful, good natured infant, who has suffered from the sea sickness of the nurse - whose mile almost dried up, but has come again and all is well. Mr. Codman is a very fine man. Captain Stevens, late commander of the sloop of War, Ontario, twenty guns, in the Meditteranean service, my mate in the state soon on the upper berth. He is a gentleman of 36 years of age of fine talents and every way a worthy and honorable man, his family lives at Middletown, in Connecticut. He has a wife and five living children. He is on furlough, came through France, to the United States.

Mr. Clemsen of Philadelphia who has been five years at Paris, at the school of Mines, and at the Hartz Mountains in Saxony, and is now returning home with a large amount of mineralogical knowledge of which the United States is much in want. He is 23 years of age, six feet four inches high, plump.

Dr. North of Charleston, South Carolina is returning from the Medical schools in Paris where he has been for three years, to his native city to embark in his profession. He appears to be a worthy, gentlemanlike man.

Mr. Richards, a handsome young gentleman from Boston, a man of excellent mind and manners who has been engaged 3 1/2 years in Commerce at Paris, is returning home.

Mr. Pasca from West Florida 62 years of age, who has been two years in Paris, endeavoring to recover his eyesight, but has become stone blind and a middle ages yellow woman, his servant leads him about and sleeps in the upper berth of his state room, and before he left Paris, Mr. Pasca's wife became a confirmed maniac, and went into bedlam, and he, poor, miserable man, is returning to the United States in despair. Alas how miserable some of our race are. We have also four Frenchmen and two French women who go cabin passengers.

We have forty or fifty Swiss, French and German passengers in the steerage. There is a German from Canton in the State of Ohio, who had 103 different powers of attorney for persons in different states, to have 10 percent commission, on his powers which amounted to $80,000, his commission $8,000. He had powers in France, Switzerland, Germany, Italy. This is the fourth or fifth time he has been here form Ohio to Italy.

August 2nd at sea. The same doleful monotony.

August 3rd 1831 at sea. The same doleful monotony.

August 4th 1831. This last night was boisterous. The sea murmured and growled about the ship as though it was seeking some avenue of admission. It seems like agents of death howling for prey as they snarl around the pitchy walls of all our hopes.

Friday August 5th 1831, at sea, in Latitude North 49 degrees, 40 minutes and Longitude 31 degrees West. How awful our situation might become in one moment, by the springing of a plank 1200 miles from land. Awful thought. Good God defend us.

Saturday August 6th at sea. Longitude 33 degrees, East Latitude 48 degrees North. Nothing remarkable today, except the Captain agreed not to take another observation until Wednesday next the 10th of August. With my longing etc. for tobacco it seems as if the day would never come to an end. Oh how awful tedious. How often I am tempted to wish the day at an end, or that a temporary annihilation might blot out knowledge connected with the tedium of existence. Such I have no doubt is the unresigned feeling of many a wicked traveller as well as myself. In these awful solitudes of the vast, the vast Atlantic; we saw three ships today; a number of blackfish and porpoises, and last night a little before sundown two huge whales were seen to spout water two or three miles from the ship. The mist of the water around the whale's head appears on his spouting, very much like the smoke around a cannon on its discharge.

Sunday August 7th at sea in a storm. This day opened in great violence and stress of weather; I have not slept for five nights three hours in the whole and therefore as soon as it was day I went on deck to see this battle of the elements. And truly one might say,

"Blow ye winds and crack your cheeks,
"And swallow navigation up,
"And strike flat the rotundity of this big world."

It was not yet hardly light, a heavy fog and a tremendous wind form the southwest were driving the murky clouds over the heavens, and lifting and driving waves, lashed to madness to some unknown and distant shore. There is something very sublime, and awfully grand in this elemental war cry, in which the powers of Nature seem to be fighting with each other in fierce encounter.

The storm has continued through the day to the moment I am now writing about 3 P.M. Oh, how violent the wind seems to blow, I have knew what violent wind on land was compared with this for violence and strength. The rolling of the ship has broken divers looking glasses, oveset divers wash bowls; water is heard flowing within as well as without. The sails are reduced three fourths in size. But how beautiful our ship climbs to the top of the mountain wave.

Though many a Frenchman has this day looked pale with fear, I cannot say I have felt any sort of fear, I have great confidence in the ability of its direction. I have read the four, first chapters of St. John, the Divine. I have sent myself to our happy little church in Cherry valley to attend service. Although I am 1800 miles from it, I at this minute of 3 P.M. here, see you all coming out of church at 12 o'clock at noon. I there see Ma leading Jane home and opening the front door, look back as she shuts it, and then walk to the north window to behold the stream of living mortals pass up street. But, alas, who knows what dreadful thing may happen before we shall meet again. But through the benevolence of that God who has kept and preserved us all our lives long, I have full confidence in believing, that we shall meet each other and be happy.

This seems to be a day, where I am in which old Eurius and Aeolus "had untied the winds to let them fight against the "churches,

"Though the zesty waves confound and swallow navigation up.
"Though bladed corn be lodged, and trees blown down,
"Though Castles topple on their warder's heads,
"Though Palaces and Pyramids do slope their heads to their "foundations."

August 8th at sea. The storm continues and a most dreadful night with out sleep we have had. I have been holding on the whole night without one wink of sleep, violent and distressing motions, requiring the extreme of caution to prevent serious injury. I was knocked down last evening at sundown by a sudden motion of the ship and a wave by which I was washed one half way across the deck.

August 9th 1831, at sea. The weather in the course of the night became more quiet and the sea went down about morning of this day after 48 hours of storm. This day has been easy and pleasant, wind light, proving the old saying, that after a storm comes a calm.

August 10th 1831, at sea, in Latitude 45 degrees N. Longitude 40 degrees E. The weather is very fine, pleasant, and every way agreeable. This morning, and yesterday morning are two of the mornings in which I have beheld the Sun, the glory of the day, rise from his Oceanic bed, and like a mighty giant perform his daily round. The sight is majestic and solemn to see the great flame illumining the golden sea with his refulgent beams. Even the solitary bird, whose roost is on the mountain wave, feels new vigor in his wing, as it is vivified by the source of light and heat. Last night divers large birds appeared about the ship, made noises, flapped their wings, they are called shearwaters. Last night we saw a sail. This morning we saw a sail four miles ahead, have overtaken her and found her to be an English brig 28 days out from Scotland bound to Quebec, and by two P.M. we had sailed twelve miles ahead of her and she disappeared upon the sphericity of the multitudinous waters. We are about half way home, oh when shall we have passed the other half. Alas! Alas! how like bed time weighs down the soul. Patience is lost, the soul is acting with its whole energy upon a single point of getting to our beloved homes. "Oh! home! home! Sweet home." But why does a living man complain?

August 11th 1831, Lat. 43 degrees N. Longitude 40 degrees 30 minutes West. This has been truly a most unfortunate day to our ship, in the loss of one of the officers being the second steward of the ship, a Frenchman, by the name of Denis from the city of New York. This man went in the ship Havre to France, and being afflicted with a certain disease, he wished to remain in France under the plea of ill-health. But the captain from the purest intentions invited him to come back in the ship, even if he did nothing. Poor Denis was a good-looking man 35 years of age, the former keeper of a billiard room, with a wife and five children in New York. For two days past he pretended he was well and came to the table to wait on it, looking very clean and respectable. This morning at 8 A.M. he went to the cook to toast some bread, and from here he went to the fore part of the ship, where, whether he fell over by accident or committed suicide will be an eternal secret. In a few hours every part of the ship has been searched, he cannot be found. Ala! Poor Denis has made his grave in the center of that awful solitude the Atlantic.

I am inclined to believe that he in only one to be added to the melancholly catalogues of those who embrace forbidden pleasures, whose end leads down to the Chambers of Death. Alas! Poor Denis! It may be truly said of Poor Denis, while we were busy here and there, he was gone, and ere this time he fills the ravenous maw of the salt shark.

August 12th 1831. We have altered our course form Lat. 43 degrees 20 minutes South and have run north all this day to make westing, the wind dead ahead for 21 days. Today our latitude was 44 degrees 20 minutes N. This forenoon we hailed a French packet bound from Vera Cruz July 1st last to Bordeaux, 42 days out homeward bound. She rounded on being hailed, and we understood she was Havre bound, and though it a fine opportunity to send our Havre Pilot back, we put down our boat four or five hands, 1st mate, three passengers and pilot who rowed away to the ship, when to our disappointment the Pilot returned, finding the destination of the Packet to be Bordeaux.

The captain of the French packet is a captain in the French Navy, and when he heard his country was not in a flame of civil war, tearing out her own vitals and dashing out her own brains, nor doing the same to any other nation, he said he was very sorry, and appeared quite chap-fallen.

This day I drew up a subscription for the family of poor Denis, and obtained 320 francs or near $60, which I collected and gave to the captain. I went to bed at 9 P.M. which made the night long and tedious.

August 13th at sea. Wind is still adverse, and at this time 11 A.M. is almost a calm, after a small thunderstorm we have had this morning. What can I say but, that I am wore all up with this lingering, corroding voyage. The poor ducks were let out of their cage, and appeared very happy, playing in the rain, washing and picking their feathers. The captain told us yesterday our voyage would be long and for the future, we must wash our faces and hands in salt water, this morning I did so wash for the first time and found it briny and disagreeable.

Sunday August 14th. At sea in a profound calm. Horror! Horror! Nothing to behold but the unmeasured and unruffled deep. We shaw a shark after us today, which the sailors believe to be ominous that another must die out of the ship. There is a young Norman on board, who speaks English, fast running on the lee shore of death by a consumption. Poor young man of about 25 years, his days are numbered, and his sands are few, and are in the neck of the glass of life. We saw a sunfish which would weigh two or three hundred weight. We also saw a shoal of blackfish, great monsters weighing a ton or more each, swimming behind us and across our track. Alas how shall we account for the manner in which this Sabbath has been spent. Every sort of vanity and awful stupidity in all of us.

Oh! I sigh in the morning for noon, at noon for night, at night for morning. Today after day is worn out, and wished and hated away, as the greatest curse.

Monday, August 15th at sea in a storm, this has been a sublime day at sea, waves running, mounting high, and our 500 ton ship, dancing like an eggshell on the tops of the waves, which with flouting impudence, in curls raise their heads to be pillowed on the slippery clouds.

The storm lasted eight hours before it broke, and drove us to the northwest. Bye the bye, we have not had a fair wind, for one hour since we left Havre, and as the second mate truly said, we have stole our way over the Western Ocean so far. Yesterday on losing a chicken, a boat was let down and sent after it. I am become exceedingly hardened about a storm or gale at sea. At sundown we overtook a brig 33 days out from Hull, England, bound to Chebueto, Maine. This ship says, she spoke the Adison last evening bound from Liverpool to Philadelphia with passengers, 35 days out from Liverpool.

August 16th at sea. I have added another wretched night of existence for I sincerely believe I have not slept fourteen hours since the second of August, put it altogether; the admirable Tenelon, Archbishop of Cambray describes in his Telemachus, the different punishments of the regions of Tartarais and winds it up by saying the inmates of that horrid place are forever deprived of sleep. I have no power to steep myself in forgetfulness. Sleep will not weigh down my eyelids. The wind has been high all night blowing us to the Northwest. This morning discouragement sits roosting like an hateful owl on every man's face. We think of nothing short of a forty day passage. Oh! shocking! I forgot to mention under date of yesterday during the storm while I was standing near the man at the wheel at the stern of the ship with the captain, the man at the wheel cried out a wave, I looked instantly to my right at the windward over the stern and saw a wave coming like a high hill 30 or 40 feet above where I stood which for a second I thought would have swept me to utter ruin, and

"For me no more the blazing hearth should burn,
"Or tender consort watch with anxious care,
"No children run to lisp their sire's return,
"Or climb his knee, the envied kiss to share."

but thank God, the ship fetched a tremendous surge, and danger flew by while our bark like a successful wrestler in falling was found on the upper side of this haughty wave.

August 17th at sea, on the eastern edge of the great Newfoundland banks in Latitude 47 N. last night wind adverse and blew a perfect gale. The weather was so cold yesterday and many days before that I suffered with the cold as though it was November. The cold was really piercing. In fact I have hardly been warm enough to perspire this summer. This morning very clearly showed us on the Banks by the color of the water, it had the light blue of a robin's egg, instead of that dark inky color, of water without soundings. The captain threw his lead and found bottom at 55 fathoms, or 330 feet. This is what is called on some charts the rough fishing grounds, or whale bank. I think it is the home of whales, we saw one blowing a number of times to the east of us, and while we were admiring him for the power of his spiracles, a tremendous whale presented himself bodily to view on the opposite quarter of the ship, about 15 rods off, blowing and swimming near the surface of the water. The whale is truly a grand monster of the deep. Last night I slept about one hour as usual, and I do not believe that since the second of August 14 nights, that I have slept over 15 hours in the whole time. Oh, the horror of rolling and tumbling away time.

"While I chide the cripple, tardy gaited night,
"Who like a foul and ugly witch, doth limp,
"So tediously away-"
"Sleep gentle sleep;
"Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,
"That thou no more will weigh my eyelids down,
"And steep my senses in forgetfulness?
"Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs
"Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee,
"And hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber;
"Than in the perfumed chamber of the great,
"Under the canopies of costly state,
"And lull'd with sounds of sweetest melody?
"O, thou dull god, why liest thou with the vile,
"In loathsome beds; and leav'st the kingly couch
"A watch case, or a common 'larum bell?
"Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast
"Seal up the ship - boy's eyes, and rock his praises
"In cradle of the rude imperious surge;
"And in the visitation of the winds,
"Who take the ruffian billows by the top,
"Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging them.
"With deaf'ning clamors in the slippery clouds,
"That with the hurly, death itself awakes?
"Can'st thou, O partial sleep give they repose
"To the wet sea boy in an hour so rude;
"And in the calmest and most stillest night,
"With all appliances and means to boot,
"Deny it to a King? Then, happy low, lie down!
"Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown."
K. Henry 4th. Act 3rd.

Today at 12, Lat. 46 degrees, 38 minutes. Long. 48 degrees, 37 minutes! Wind blowing from the same adverse point, she did when we left Havre, toward the southwest. We shall use every minute of 40 days - I believe if not more.

August 18th at sea, running point east of south, on the eastern edge of the grand Newfoundland Banks. Lat. 45 degrees N. Long. 48 degrees W. So we have gained a little in Latitude and lost in Longitude.

Our poor captain is really distressed at such continued adversity. The wind is exactly blowing form the point we wish to go - direct in our teeth, three vessels in sight today going same way for America. A whale paid his compliments to us this morning by spouting and taking in a stock of fresh air into his lungs. I confess I felt very much disposed to strike a bargain with him to draw us to New York by putting a proper harness on his whaleship, and that for so doing we would covenant that he might spend his days in the East River, unmolested by the swordfish or thrasher, or the harpoon of cruel men. Last night I slept very well. For which I hope I am thankful.

August 19th 1831. At sea on the eastern edge of Grand Banks. Forenoon calm. Afternoon the wind is a little more favorable, about 5 P.M. we saw two great "sulphur-bottomed" whales supposed to be by the passengers between 80 and 100 feet in length.

These whales are the dread of old whalers for the reason, they are difficult to catch, and when caught they will thresh about and destroy or sink boats and ships from their amazing strength, and lastly they have no spermaceti, the little oil they have inside is black and has a very fetid smell, and there is but little of it. These reasons forbid much acquaintance with the sulphur-bottomed whales. During our calm six vessels were in sight on the grand banks. We sounded and found the bottom at 315 feet. Today I bet $6 with Mr. Daggett, 1st mate, $6 with Mr. Richards and $8 with Capt. De Peyster that the ship would not be at the Quarantine ground in 12 days from 6 o'clock P.M. of this evening - being $20 in the whole. I hope I shall lose it and believe I shall. And in fact if one could assure me with certainty I should lose it nothing would be more pleasing. I am so anxious to finish this unpleasantly long voyage, we have about 1000 miles to go. The wind has been very fair since I made that bet. And every one laughs and says I shall be beat - and so I say and so much the better.

August 20th 1831. The wind this morning I found blowing us south, and about noon we tacked and now stand for the north under reefed top sails, so we run first on one tack and then on the other. I have been reading the manuscript travels of Mrs. Codman, deceased in Holland. Which are written with great beauty and simplicity. Mr. Codman gave them to me to peruse. The journey was made last summer. Little did she in perfect health, gayety and pleasure with wealth think she was treading on the confines of Eternity at 32.

The evening is setting in with a high wind and a dark tempestuous night, must be our companion and the howling tempest our music. May the most High protect us. We were called yesterday to see our poor young Norman die of consumption; but he has revived and may live a little while longer, but cannot see the land with his mortal eyes, and his grave will soon be the devouring maw of a shark.

Sunday August 21st at sea on the west side of the Banks in Latitude 43 degrees 39 minutes North. Another Sabbath has almost passed, and most wickedly spent without any form of worship. Oh! when shall I see the land and hear the church going bell. This morning two Grampuses in company paid us a visit weighing five tons each as supposed. They went round and round the ship, until a harpoon was thrown into one, from which after a short struggle he disengaged himself, while a ball was fired from a gun into the other. This uncourteous reception relieved us from their grampian majesties. Perfect calm till 5 P.M. when a slight breeze sprung up from the west and headed us off to the north. This afternoon we saw 30 or 40 acres of huge blackfish of a ton each and porpoises spouting and frolicking around us in every direction, in fact in appeared like a town meeting of the monsters of the great deep, who seemed to have met by common consent around our ship to transact their business, which seemed to be rising in long pitches to the surface, spouting and disappearing.

Before I forget who the great public men are who constitute the present administration of Louis Phillippe the King of the French I will insert their names in my humble diary -

Casimir Perrier, President of the Council and minister of state.
Gen'l. Sebastini, Minister of Foreign affairs.
Baron Louis, Minister of Finance.
Admiral Rigny, Minister of Marine.
Barthe, Minister of Justice.
Montaliret, Minister of public instruction, roads, canals and mines.
Classel, Director General of the Post office.
Le Compte D'Argout, Minister of Commerce.
Marshal Soult, Minister of War.

Soult, was bound out to learn the trade of a blacksmith, when young. Cassimir Perrierm, was and is a banker and once a poor boy.

August 22nd 1831, At sea in Lat. 44 degrees, 36 minutes N. W. Long. 53 degrees, 40 minutes wind still adverse, about 400 miles directly east of Halifax in Nova Scotia, and 800 from New York. Today about 4 P.M. it was announced that our poor consumptive Norman John Alexandrise had drawn his last breath. He was a good looking young man about 26 years of age, spoke English well; I went immediately to see him he was a stiffened corse, and his sightless balls were turned up to Heaven in a tearless agony - and as I was told he requested no one speak to him during the six last hours of his life as he wished to contemplate upon the mysteries of that other world of which he was shortly to be an inhabitant. He has a wife at Havre, but no children.

This afternoon we saw the Hudson, a Packet ship from London, 33 days out first saw her at 4 P.M. then again at 10 P.M. hailed her and had a race with her, we at first beat her, then the wind died away and she beat us.

August 23rd 1831. This morning I was called up at 8 A.M. to attend the funeral of Poor Alexandrise. I hastened to the deck to the right of the mainmast, where the corpse lay, in a taried sheet, on a board with his feet toward the sea, around his feet at his ancles, was a rope fastening a bag with 50 weight of stones. We all stood in silence for five minutes when the 2nd mate lifted the head of the board up gently and sliding it with its mournful load over the edge of the ship, it made the horrid plunge, when the mighty sea received the late tenement of an immortal spirit and closed forever it slippery folds around the little break upon its surface, while the spirit-forsaken body hastened down ten thousand fathoms to old ocean's bottom, there to rest till the great command shall come for the sea to give up its dead. Alas he descended,

"Among the thousand fearful wrecks;
"A thousand men fishes gnawed upon;
"Wedges of gold, great anchors, heaps of pearl
"Inestimable stones, unvalued jewels,
"All scattered in the bottom of the sea,
"Some lay in dead men's skulls; and in those holes,
"Where eyes did once inhabit, there were crept,
"(As 'twere in scorn of eyes) reflecting gems,
"That woo'd the slimy bottom of the deep,
"And mocked the dead bones, that lay scattered by."

August 24th at sea. A high sea all day with some rain and a dense fog so that we could no see twice the length of the ship ahead during the whole day, much the same as the weather the day before.

August 25th at sea. Took observations today and found our Latitude 44 degrees, 16 minutes N. and Longitude 58 degrees west, had soundings today at 40 fathoms, saw divers land birds and two large flocks of wild geese flying to the South east and South; It was beyond our wits to imagine where they would bring up on that sea like course.

Friday August 26th. Slight breeze directly from the west. Oh how unfortunate we are 700 miles from New York and 175 from Halifax. It is enough to break the heart of a lion and drink up the animal spirits of a tiger to have a whole passage an adverse and a beating one. I shall win the $20. I have bet as the time is out at 6 P.M. on the 31st August. I am now satisfied I shall not be able to attend the Otsego September circuit. The sea is so flat this morning that it appears like a river, running when there is a gentle breeze blowing on its surface. Latitude today is 43 degrees, 31 minutes N. Long 58 degrees, 30 minutes West.

Saturday August 27th. Last night had a horrible dream, which awoke me. Latitude today 43 degrees, 38 minutes; Longitude 46 degrees, 24 minutes West, light wind and not fair.

Sunday August 28th 11 A.M. fine fair wind, which encourages us much from its being so great a stranger. Saw 2 flocks of wild geese going to the south this morning.

August 29th. At sea on the western edge of St. George's shoal at 12 o'clock in Lat. 41 degrees, 45 minutes N. in Longitude 66 degrees, 20 minutes West. The happiest days, this and yesterday, which we have had during this long passage. We went between 4 and 5 degrees of Longitude in the last 24 hours; we have only 8 degrees of Longitude to go or 360 miles being 45 miles to a degree of Longitude. Oh how charming is this North wind, we go 9 miles an hour towards our beloved country. This has truly been a happy day.

We have yet on board our old Havre Pilot. He cannot speak English. The Pilot spoke to me in French I supposed about my $20 bet, in a very good natured manner. I supposing that he said I would win the bet, to which I nodded assent and said oui, or yes; but judge of my surprize when Joseph came and told me the old pilot had entered my room and carried away my boots alleging that I had given them to him. A laughable mistake, for instead of talking of my bet, he had asked me to give him my boots, pronounced in French "but" or "bet" and I had said yes. I corrected the mistake directly by reclaiming my property.

By the bye I believe if the wind continues as favorable as it is now I shall loose my $20 bet. But that will be a real gain because it will permit me to see my beloved family so much sooner and attend the next Otsego Circuit. I shall take my wife and children by a delightful surprize, as my coming will be so unexpected.

August 30th 1831. We have in Latitude 41 degrees, 15 minutes N.; 68 degrees West Longitude, we crossed this morning the south tail of St. George's Bank at 12 fathoms of water. Our wind has been nothing today and we have been creeping at a snail's pace towards New York form which we are 270 miles distant and 25 hours are all that remain of the bet. I consider it won.

August 31st 1831. Still at sea 200 miles east of New York, the day delightful but the breeze is very weak about three knots an hour - 20 miles west of Nantucket shoal. A vessel is in sight standing in to our right for Boston, from which place we are not more than 70 or 80 miles. The New England coast stands in front us staring us in the mind's eye full in the mind's face. Eight bells have been struck on the chinese gong at our stern, and rung in repeat from the bow of the ship on a bell which denotes 12 o'clock at noon. There is six hours of the bet left, it is won. This is the last day of summer and I have reason to thank the God of heaven and earth that I have been conducted through so many dangers see and unseen with so much health, by which I may be enabled to revisit my family beloved, and my country venerated possessing all that can give happiness in this perfect state of being. I think the comparison which may be drawn between our country and any one in Europe is as a hundred to one in favor of the United States. tomorrow is my birthday, which I intended to have spent at home with my family; but it is otherwise ordained, and the only duty is for me to submit. I never saw a more beautiful night than last night the evening and night of the 30th of August. The heavens were unembarrassed with a single cloud or particle of fog. Oh how bright the stars as their gleaming danced on the gentle wave, and the galaxy threw open her great drawing room in the skies; new beauties seemed to have made their debut at this celestial concert. Venus was more splendid than ever and gloried in the loveliness of her charms.

I discovered a very modest star on the south eastern edge of the horizon and so near the edge as that she appeared and disappeared as the vessel rose and fell a little by the gentle swell with which the palpitating bosom of old ocean is always heaving. It seems as if you could see deeper into the regions of space, than ever I could on the land.

September 1st 1831. At sea, in sight of the highlands, southwest of Montauk point on Long Island. We at sunrise were about 90 miles east of Sandy Hook. Oh glorious sight of our native land, our dear land, the land of Liberty -

"Breathes there a man with soul so dead
"Who never to himself hath said
"This is my own, my native Land."