Gulf of Mexico Campaigns 1813-1815




This map shows some, but not all, of the conflicts centered around the area that was then part of West Florida. Between 1803 and 1819, the U.S., Spain and France all claimed ownership of West Florida. The secret Treaty of San Ildefonso on October 1, 1800, transferred Louisiana from Spain to France. It did not include New Orleans or any territory east of the Mississippi River. Spain still owned East and West Florida and the land between the Mississippi and Perdido rivers. Prior to the dates shown here there had been other raids such as the Spaniard Galvez's attack of Pensacola when the area was owned by England 1763-1783.
After the campaigns shown here, Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans and the Creek War attacked the Seminole Indians at Negro Fort (established by runaway slaves) on Apalachiola Bay and then other Seminoles in Pensacola, St. Mark's and Seewanee, Old Town creating the First Seminole War (1816-1818). All this occurred while the Spanish still owned Florida because the Spanish used their friendship with the Indians and their support to help defend Florida from encroachment or control by the adjacent United States. This relationship had been solidified by the Oct 28, 1793 Treaty of Nogales between the King of Spain and the various Indian tribes from the provinces of Louisiana and West Florida.


Discovering The Americas: Archives of the Indies. The Vendome Press. New York, Paris, 1997.

Coverage Time: